Boiler vessels fill with unfiltered water containing naturally occurring impurities. Common impurities such as Calcium, magnesium and oxygen are common impurities that can, if not controlled, have a costly effect on boiler efficiency, performance and durability. High levels of dissolved calcium and magnesium minerals come out of solution and form a hard shell on the hot surfaces of the boiler. This scale is often found on the outside of the fire tubes. This scale insulates the heating surfaces reducing the ability of the fire tubes to transfer heat from the hot combustion to the boiler water, which increases fuel consumption. Scale can also lead to hot spots and could cause a tube rupture – an issue that is expensive and potentially, extremely dangerous.
Water containing dissolved oxygen or carbon dioxide gases in the presence of metal can cause corrosion. Corrosion attacks the metal effecting the durability of the boiler, which increases capital equipment expenses.
Boiler heating systems lose water through steam and water leaks. Additional water called "makeup water" is added to the boiler to replace these losses. The amount of make-up water and the level of naturally occurring impurities in the water will determine the type of water treatment required. Typically a water softener, dealkalizer, reverse osmosis system, chemical feed or a combination will eliminate the hard water scale build up, reduce chemical costs and reduce expensive blow downs.
1/8” of scale reduces efficiency by 18%!
Sizing System: Multiply the HP rating of the boiler by .069 to = GPM
If you have condensate return, multiply the % of return to get GPM
Example: (200 GPM with 30% return) 200 x .70 = 140 GPM required to size water treatment system
Based on 34.5 lbs. of water evaporated per hour @ 212F.
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